The sound of wheezing as heard with a stethoscope. Problems playing this file?
Such a decline results in restricted obstructed airflow in the lungs. Lung physiology Understanding lung physiology is vital to comprehending the complex pathophysiology of COPD. Some of the fundamental lung concepts are listed in Box 1. Although it is possible to discuss COPD without exploring all these in detail, lung compliance and lung resistance are particularly important in the physiological process of COPD.
Higginson]] Compliance Compliance refers to how much effort is required to stretch the lungs and thoracic wall. High compliance means that the lungs and thoracic wall expand easily.
The lungs normally have high compliance and expand easily because elastic fibres in lung tissue are easily stretched and because surfactant reduces surface tension.
An increase in lung resistance obstructs the flow of air through the lungs. Restrictive and obstructive diseases Lung diseases are classified into those that impact upon either compliance or resistance. A decrease in lung compliance leads to restrictive lung diseases. An increase in lung resistance leads to obstructive lung diseases.
Restrictive lung diseases Restrictive lung diseases include conditions producing 'stiff lungs', such as silicosis, pneumoconiosis a general term for lung disease caused by inhalation of mineral dust and TB.
In addition, restrictive lung diseases include conditions producing paralysis of intercostal muscles, pulmonary oedema and reductions in the production of surfactant. FEV1 in restrictive and obstructive diseases The forced expiratory volume in one second FEV1 is the volume of air exhaled by the lungs during the first second of a forced expiration, after maximal inspiration.
In obstructive lung diseases, however, such as bronchitis and emphysema, the forced vital capacity is reduced. In addition, because of the increase in airway resistance patients with an obstructive disease also have a reduced expiratory flow rate. Thus, a patient with an obstructive disease might have a forced vital capacity of only 3.
In restrictive lung diseases, forced vital capacity is also reduced. Chronic inflammatory irritation leads to a defensive increase in mucus production, resulting in increases in numbers of goblet epithelial cells.
This leads to mucus gland hyperplasia, in the large airways and increased risk of infection. Ultimately, these factors result in an airway obstruction.
As is the case with emphysema, airway narrowing means bronchitis is classified as an obstructive disease. Causes and consequences of bronchitis While respiratory viruses are the most common cause for acute bronchitis, in chronic bronchitis airway epithelial cells release inflammatory mediators in response to long-term noxious, infectious or inflammatory stimuli.
Pink puffers compensate for raised carbon dioxide levels, increasing their respiratory rate. This hyperventilation means that they have less hypoxaemia and near normal carbon dioxide levels.
Higginson]] Treatment for chronic bronchitis Because of its obstructive nature, the treatment for chronic bronchitis is similar to that of emphysema, with bronchodilators, steroids and oxygen therapy all being indicated.
Long-acting bronchodilators are now recommended if prn short-acting are required regularly and inhaled corticosteroids are recommended not oral except in acute exacerbations. In addition, antibiotics are also indicted for acute exacerbation of the condition when triggered by airway infections.
As a result of the overinflation and destruction of the alveolar walls there is a reduction in the lung's surface area, leading to impaired gaseous exchange. Although significant, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficieny is not the leading cause of emphysema. Rather, exposure to noxious stimuli, most often cigarette smoke, is the most common cause for the developmenmt of empysema.
Smoking stimulates local inflammatory response in the lungs. The inflammatory activity of cells, such as neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes, produces chemicals such as elastase.
These inflammtory chemicals then lead to the destruction of the alveoli wall and to to fewer but larger alveoli.What is COPD?
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and refractory (non-reversible) asthma. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness. Sleep Aid Itching Sleep Disorders Common In Athletes with Usleep Skyrim Nexus and Whypaymore Com are common and serious sleep disorder that causes you to stop breathing during sleep,brief interruptions in breathing during sleep.
From the Editor's desk. Dear Readers, I hope that you find Lung India useful in boosting your academic pursuits. The editorial team and the leadership of the Indian Chest Society are interested and engaged in improving the journal and its rating.
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD; Emphysema) Pathophysiology Abakyereba Kwansemah June 4, Abstract yunusemremert.com a year-old man admitted to medical ward with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; emphysema).
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, commonly referred to as COPD, is a chronic lung disease that makes it difficult to breathe. It is a progressive condition, meaning that it gets worse over time. While the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids are more widely acknowledged, we know a part of you may still be hesitant.
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