Edit Although he released an album David Bowie and several singles earlier, David Bowie first caught the eye and ear of the public in the autumn ofwhen the song " Space Oddity " reached the top five of the UK Singles Chart. After a three-year period of experimentation he re-emerged in during the glam rock era as the flamboyant, androgynous alter ego Ziggy Stardust, spearheaded by the hit single " Starman " and the album The Rise and Fall of Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars.
This essay appeared in the June-July issue of Analog magazine. It came first in the Analytical Laboratory awards for fact articles.
There is a revolution going on in software development today that Analog readers should find especially interesting — because that revolution has some roots in Alienated synthesist hard-SF tradition, and because it raises some fundamental questions about not just the technological machinery of our computers but the social, economic and political machinery that surrounds software development.
Because computers and the Internet are becoming such a vital part of our infrastructure, the way human beings frame answers to those questions may well play a significant part in shaping the future of our civilization. That is, using open-source techniques we can achieve error rates at least comparable to those in computer hardware engineering, and in important cases such as the Internet comparable to the robustness of large-scale civil engineering.
Open source gives us these benefits, however, at the cost of effectively dynamiting the standard secrecy-intensive business models for software production, a change with large Alienated synthesist repercussions — including, very probably, the near-term collapse or radical transformation of Microsoft and most of the rest of the current software industry.
This article is a report from the front lines by a long-time Analog reader who found himself semi-accidentally cast as one of the revolution's theoreticians.
I have written this article partly as personal history because that history shows how the tradition of Analog-style hard SF was an important ingredient in the re discovery of open source.
The core idea of open-source development is very simple: The most effective way to achieve reliability in software is to publish its source code for active peer review by other programmers and by non-programmer domain experts in the software's application area. This premise implies an inversion of traditional prescriptions for managing software development — a shift from small, vertically organized, rigidly focused groups of developers working on secret code to large, self-selected, diffuse, horizontal, and somewhat chaotic peer communities working on a common base of open source code as, for example, in the case of the Linux operating system or Apache webserver.
In many other fields, peer review would not be considered a particularly radical idea. Historically, the way we have gotten high reliability of results in engineering and the sciences is by institutionalizing peer review.
Physicists don't hide their experimental plans from each other; instead, they skeptically check each others' work.
Civil engineers don't build dams or suspension bridges without having the blueprints sanity-checked first by other engineers independent of the original design group. Early on, however, mainstream software engineering moved in the opposite direction away from open development and peer review for two reasons.
One was purely economic — companies producing software discovered a business model in which, rather than providing reasonable quality or service, they were able to extract enormous rents simply by using code secrecy to lock in their customers. The other was more technical — software engineers came to believe that large, loosely-managed development groups were a sure recipe for disaster.
This implied that projects with many developers should be expected to collapse under the weight of unplanned and unintended interactions. Although Brooks did not advocate code secrecy as such, Brooks's Law seemed to support the practice; if adding more programmers couldn't help and isolating your team from distractions is good practice, then why ever reveal your code?
The accepted doctrine of commercial software production came to include code secrecy as well as the surgical-team organization. Unfortunately for that accepted doctrine, the reliability of the closed-source software it produces remained, on the whole, hideously bad.
Even leaving aside subtler failures to get the intended function of a program right, gross errors such as crashes and hangs and lost data remained all too common.Dec 21, · wearer, alienated synthesist, non-musician, creator of soundscapes, photographer, 30yr games industry vet, vinyl junkie.
Personal account - views my own etc. Just to the left of never. The Yarrow et al.
study () illustrates the somewhat arbitrary nature of the myriad of decisions the synthesist must make in selecting which statistic should represent a study. Two tables summarized correlations of four punishment measures with three aggression measures. Feb 01, · Netflix isn’t exactly known for adventurous film programming, but their February lineup is even more geared toward comfort cinema than usual — not that we’re complaining.
The world is a cold.
Hurts are an English synthpop duo formed in , consisting of singer Theo Hutchcraft and synthesist Adam Anderson. Their first two albums, Happiness and Exile, both reached the top ten in the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Poland, and Finland.
|The Open Source Idea||This group quickly jettisoned the legacy of free jazz and concentrated on experimental techniques of sound production using both conventional and electronic instruments. Since the mid-seventies he has also led a quartet whose music is jazz-inspired free improvisation and plays in a number of other groups.|
|quotations on libraries essay format header and footer essay||According to Zerzan, original human societies in paleolithic times, and similar societies today such as the! Kung and Mbutilive a non-alienated and non-oppressive form of life based on primitive abundance and closeness to nature.|
#grunge #paisleyunderground #neopsychedelic 1. Nirvana was a popular and highly influential American grunge band. The band formed in Aberdeen, Washington in , and it was part of the Seattle grunge scene of the late 80s, alongside bands like Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains and Soundgarden.
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