Film authorship has shaped our understanding of many film cultures around the world and across different media beyond the cinema, as models of auteurism have evolved from France to the United States and through national cinemas from China and India to Iran and Denmark. What auteurism means in theory and in practice has changed significantly due to the pressures of post-structuralist theory, feminist interventions, cultural and racial distinctions, globalization, and the challenges of new media, but it remains a central topic for debate in film and media studies.
The incorporation of trauma theory into film and media studies, realized in relation to the field-shaping influence of psychoanalytically informed film theory see Trauma and the Inner Worldhas enabled a fuller explication of the power and complexity of the relationships among calamitous historical events, media objects and networks, spectator positioning, and mental processes.
In designing this article, we have considered the historical development of trauma theory while recognizing and reflecting, through subheadings and entry choices, the fact that this history is multidimensional rather than linear, temporally recursive rather than chronological, and characterized by genuine differences of opinion.
Key debates include the location of trauma is trauma an internal, psychical phenomenon; an event in the world; or a combination of the internal and the external? In short, scholars of film and media studies, along with those from many other disciplines, have embraced a plurality of trauma theory approaches while at the same time recognizing and contributing toafrom within or from outside of trauma theoryfthe ongoing self critiques of this research rubric.
A large number of the significant texts in this area of trauma theory have referred directly to the Holocaust of World War II. One might even say that Holocaust studies, if not the Holocaust itself, has been germinal for trauma theory.
The method of categorizing Holocaust-related research in this article is twofold: The authors of this article have elected to disperse such references throughout to signal the overlap among Holocaust, memory, and trauma theory, and they have included as well a separate heading on Holocaust under which key works in Holocaust trauma theory are listed.
The authors of this article aim also to emphasize, most explicitly under the heading Decolonizing Trauma Studiesresearch related to trauma theory that seeks to critique and expand the paradigm beyond psychoanalysis, beyond the West, and beyond the Holocaust of World War II.
Thanks to David Gray and Jade Petermon for their assistance with this article. Key Works The foundation for trauma theory has been firmly established across multiple disciplines and fields ranging from American studies, history, and psychoanalysis to cultural studies, sociology, and anthropology among others, with a particular upsurge in scholarship during the s.
That underpinning is reflected in the key texts cited in this article. Antze and Lambekan interdisciplinary volume, includes essays that mobilize and problematize the concept of trauma as does Radstone in offering a critique of the tendency of trauma theory to revert to binaristic thinking from more sophisticated theoretical approaches previously established in film and media studies.
Other works, such as CaruthTaland Hirsch have concentrated on the representation of trauma through literature, film, and photography. Equally intense in their inquiries of trauma, the authors Felman and LaubLaCapraand Leys have engaged with both theoretical and clinical aspects of psychoanalysis and how they inform our contemporary understanding of individual and collective psychic wounds.
Antze, Paul, and Michael Lambek, eds. Cultural Essays in Trauma and Memory.
Trauma, Narrative, and History. Johns Hopkins University Press, Felman, Shoshana, and Dori Laub. Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History. Photography Narrative and Postmemory. Harvard University Press, This text explores the power of photographic images in the construction of collective memory.
Here, Hirsch advances her theory of post-memory, which draws out the complex relationship between generations that precede traumatic events and the photographs that reference these events. Cornell University Press, University of Chicago Press, Argues that work in trauma theory resurrects binary thinking transcended by psychoanalysis, has a tendency to ignore the lessons of literary and media studies, and tends to privilege events that are considered traumatic in the West.Blade Runner Cinematography Bladerunner by Ridley Scott centers heavily on its use of cinematography.
While the story was backed by a strong foundation of an original plot and interesting characters, the cinematography of the movie was a driving factor behind its popularity and success. Essays Related to Cinematography.
1. Film Techniques in Blade Runner. Scott's usage of cinematography, symbolism and film noir has helped in distinguishing between the replicants and humans, which is the main idea in this film.
The different varieties of cinematography used helps the viewer to understand the natural and the unnatural world 3/5(4). Search the world's most comprehensive index of full-text books.
My library. A riveting psychological thriller that investigates the nature of truth and the meaning of justice, Rashomon is widely considered one of the greatest films ever made.
This is the nominee everyone is talking about, and that, in today’s culture, is enough to get you a major award.
Best to be clear here: Morrison deserves to be nominated in this category, but I do not think Mudbound is a better shot film than Blade Runner , Dunkirk, or The Shape of yunusemremert.com, if Morrison were to win, you wouldn’t hear me complaining.
Foreign Correspondent Blu-ray (): Starring George Sanders (I), Joel McCrea and Laraine Day. An American reporter covering the war in Europe gets mixed up in the assassination of a Dutch diplomat.