This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity.
Volume 6FebruaryPages open access Author links open overlay panel C. Oster Show more Under a Creative Commons license Abstract Life on earth has adapted to the day-night cycle by evolution of internal, so-called circadian clocks that adjust behavior and physiology to the recurring changes in environmental conditions.
In mammals, a master pacemaker located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus SCN of the hypothalamus receives environmental light information and synchronizes peripheral tissues and central non-SCN clocks to geophysical time.
Regulatory systems such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis and the autonomic nervous system ANSboth being important for the regulation of stress responses, receive strong circadian input.
In this review, we summarize the interaction of circadian and stress systems and the resulting physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Finally, we critically discuss the relevance of rodent stress studies for humans, addressing complications of translational approaches and offering strategies to optimize animal studies from a chronobiological perspective.
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Register your specific details and specific drugs of interest and we will match the information you provide to articles from our extensive database and email PDF copies to . A psychoanalytic theory in which eight stages of psychosocial development unfold throughout the human life span.
Pediatric and Newborn Assessment 9. Infant, Child, and Apply physical, cognitive, and psychosocial theories when planning care for children from therefore integrates knowledge of physical growth and psychosocial development . The importance of physical, cognitive and psychosocial development becomes apparent when a person does not successfully master one or more of the developmental stages.
For example, a child who fails to achieve basic milestones of physical development may be Founded: Jun 17, Overweight women limited their weight gain with a diet and exercise program during pregnancy, but it did not lower their rate of complications like gestational diabetes.