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However it is correct to call it epenthesis when viewed synchronically since the modern basic form of the verb is a and so the psycholinguistic process is therefore the addition of t to the base form. A similar example is the English indefinite Epenthesis linguistics a, which becomes an before a vowel.
However, a synchronic analysis, in keeping with the perception of most native speakers, would equally correctly see it as epenthesis: In Dutchwhenever the suffix -er which has several meanings is Epenthesis linguistics to a word already ending in -r, an additional -d- is inserted in between.
Similarly, the agent noun of verkopen "to sell" is verkoper "salesperson"but the agent noun of uitvoeren "to perform" is uitvoerder "performer". However, the pronunciation was often not written with double ll, and may have been the normal way of pronouncing a word starting in rel- rather than a poetic modification.
In Japanese[ edit ] A limited number of words in Japanese use epenthetic consonants to separate vowels. That is a synchronic analysis. It exhibits epenthesis on both morphemes: Some accounts distinguish between "intrusive vowels", vowel-like releases of consonants as phonetic detail, and true epenthetic vowels, which are required by the phonotactics of the language and acoustically identical with phonemic vowels.
Historical sound change[ edit ] End of word[ edit ] Many languages insert a so-called prop vowel at the end of a word to avoid the loss of a non-permitted cluster. The cluster can come about by a change in the phonotactics of the language that no longer permits final clusters. Something similar happened in Sanskritwith the result that a new vowel -i or -a was added to many words.
Another possibility is a sound change deleting vowels at the end of a word, which is a very common sound change. That may well produce impermissible final clusters. In some cases, the problem was resolved by allowing a resonant to become syllabic or inserting a vowel in the middle of a cluster: In the Gallo-Romance languageshowever, a prop vowel was added: Middle of word[ edit ] Examples are common in many Slavic languageswhich had a preference for vowel-final syllables in earlier times.
The other Slavic languages instead metathesised the vowel and the consonant: Other examples exist in Modern Persian in which former word-initial consonant clusters, which were still extant in Middle Persianare regularly broken up: French has a three level use of initial epenthesis depending on the time of incorporation: The same occurs in the song " Umbrella ".
Regular or semiregular epenthesis commonly occurs in languages with affixes. That is again a synchronic analysis, as the form with the vowel is the original form and the vowel was later often lost.
Borrowed words[ edit ] Vocalic epenthesis typically occurs when words are borrowed from a language that has consonant clusters or syllable codas that are not permitted in the borrowing language. Languages use various vowels, but schwa is quite common when it is available: Most speakers pronounce borrowings with spelling pronunciationsand others try to approximate the nearest equivalents in Portuguese of the phonemes in the original language.
Turkish prefixes close vowels to loanwords with initial clusters of alveolar fricatives followed by another consonant: The practice is no longer productive as of late 20th century and a few such words have changed back: Informal speech[ edit ] Epenthesis most often occurs within unfamiliar or complex consonant clusters.
Epenthesis is sometimes used for humorous or childlike effect.
For example, the cartoon character Yogi Bear says "pic-a-nic basket" for "picnic basket. Some apparent occurrences of epenthesis, however, have a separate cause: Some dialects also use [e] for voiced consonant clusters, which is deemed as stereotypical of the lower classes: In Spanish, it is usual to find epenthetic vowels in sequences of plosive, flap, and vowel or labiodental fricative, flap, and vowel, normally in a non-emphatic pronunciation.
In Finnish[ edit ] In Finnishthere are two epenthetic vowels and two nativization vowels. The second is [e], connecting stems that have historically been consonant stems to their case endings: In Standard Finnish, consonant clusters may not be broken by epenthetic vowels; foreign words undergo consonant deletion rather than addition of vowels:Metathesis of liquid consonants is an important historical change during the development of the Slavic languages: a syllable-final liquid metathesized to become syllable-initial, therefore e.g.
Polish mleko vs. . Epenthesis is a cover term for the insertion of any vocalic or consonantal sound. Since vowel epenthesis is further known as anaptyxis, epenthesis can be restrictively used to refer to just the intrusion of a stop in a consonant cluster: cf.
Lat. humerum > * homro > Spanish hombro ‘shoulder’. Another explanation for epenthesis is that epenthesis is a pattern of correspondence that Spanish speakers perceive to hold between foreign and native words.
Some patterns of correspondence involve substituting a native phone for a foreign one. epenthesis following certain prefixed words such as antiestético 'unaesthetic', and interestatal 'interstate', as well as the lack of epenthesis in other prefixed words such as proscribir 'to expatriate', and transpirar 'to perspire'.
Theoretically, epenthesis may occur as the result of a phonological, morphological, or phonetic rule. Within generative theory, epenthesis is “triggered” or “conditioned” by .
EPENTHESIS. Definition: The insertion of a vowel to break up a cluster. Comment: The speed of movement needed to produce a transition from one consonant to another in a cluster can be slowed by the insertion of a vowel.