Ninth and last crusade —72 Nov
The authority of church and state was not separated in early medieval societies, and the lay officials worked closely with their diocesan bishop and local abbots, who also attended the king's royal councils.
Building on the foundations of his predecessors, he created the most centralised government that England had yet seen. Anglo-Saxon kings did not have a fixed capital city.
Their courts were peripatetic, and their councils were held at varying locations around their realms.
The small and intimate meetings that had been adequate until the enlargement of the kingdom under Edward the Elder gave way to large bodies attended by bishops, ealdormen, thegns, magnates from distant areas, and independent rulers who had submitted to his authority.
The law code of Alfred the Great, from the end of the ninth century, was also written in the vernacular, and he expected his ealdormen to learn it. The earliest appear to be his tithe edict and the "Ordinance on Charities". Nicholas Brooks sees the role of the bishops as marking an important stage in the increasing involvement of the church in the making and enforcement of law.
The first asserts the importance of paying tithes to the church. The first of these later codes, issued at Grately, prescribed harsh penalties, including the death penalty for anyone over twelve years old caught in the act of stealing goods worth more than eight pence.
In desperation the Council tried a different strategy, offering an amnesty to thieves if they paid compensation to their victims.
The problem of powerful families protecting criminal relatives was to be solved by expelling them to other parts of the realm. Sarah Foot commented that tithing and oath-taking to deal with the problem of theft had its origin in Frankia: His preoccupation with theft—tough on theft, tough on the causes of theft—finds no direct parallel in other kings' codes.
Patrick Wormald's verdict was harsh: But the extant results are, frankly, a mess. Keynes sees the Grately code as "an impressive piece of legislation" showing the king's determination to maintain social order. The Grately code included a provision that there was to be only one coinage across the king's dominion.
However, this is in a section that appears to be copied from a code of his father, and the list of towns with mints is confined to the south, including London and Kent, but not northern Wessex or other regions.
This advertised his newly exalted status with the inscription, "Rex Totius Britanniae". This was eventually issued in all regions apart from Mercia, which issued coins without a ruler portrait, suggesting, in Sarah Foot's view, that any Mercian affection for a West Saxon king brought up among them quickly declined.
Churchmen attended royal feasts as well as meetings of the Royal Council. Indeed, his reputation was so great that some monastic scribes later falsely claimed that their institutions had been beneficiaries of his largesse.
He was especially devoted to the cult of St. Cuthbert in Chester-le-Street, and his gifts to the community there included Bede 's Lives of Cuthbert. He commissioned it especially to present to Chester-le Street, and out of all manuscripts he gave to a religious foundation which survive, it is the only one which was wholly written in England during his reign.
According to late and dubious sources, these churches included minsters at Milton Abbas in Dorset and Muchelney in Somerset. England and Saxony became closer after the marriage alliance, and German names start to appear in English documents, while Cenwald kept up the contacts he had made by subsequent correspondence, helping the transmission of continental ideas about reformed monasticism to England.
His interest in education, and his reputation as a collector of books and relics, attracted a cosmopolitan group of ecclesiastical scholars to his court, particularly Bretons and Irish.
He made a confraternity agreement with the clergy of Dol Cathedral in Brittany, who were then in exile in central France, and they sent him the relics of Breton saints, apparently hoping for his patronage. The contacts resulted in a surge in interest in England for commemorating Breton saints.
The style was characterised by long, convoluted sentences and a predilection for rare words and neologisms. In the view of Simon Keynes it is no coincidence that they first appear immediately after the king had for the first time united England under his rule, and they show a high level of intellectual attainment and a monarchy invigorated by success and adopting the trappings of a new political order.Subsection.
All of the Bible Commentaries of the Scottish Covenanters.. Order of Contents. Why Read the Scottish Covenanters? About this Collection. A brief history of England from the Celts to the Present with a list of its monarchs and archbishops.
Why did the Rump Parliament fail to provide lasting and stable government in England between ? The Rump was created by the purge of the Commons by .
A time line from before writing began to the present, linked to Andrew Roberts' book Social Science History and to other resources.
CHITTENDEN GENEALOGY - UNITED STATES. FAMILIES OF EARLY GUILFORD, CONNECTICUT. Compiled by Alvan Talcott: CHITTENDEN. 1. William Chittenden was baptized Mar and . Thomas Clagett, born in London, April 3, , the youngest son of Edward Clagett and Margaret Adams, daughter of the Lord-Mayor of London, was the first of the Clagetts to immigrate to America.