The necessary revolution peter senge

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The necessary revolution peter senge

Preamble[ edit ] In the early ninth century, when much of what later became France was part of the Holy Roman Empireunits of measure had been standardised by the Emperor Charlemagne.

He had introduced standard units of measure for length and for mass throughout his empire. As the empire disintegrated into separate nations, including France, these standards diverged. In England the Magna Carta had stipulated that "There shall be standard measures of wine, ale, and corn the London quarterthroughout the kingdom.

There shall also be a standard width of dyed cloth, russet, and haberject, namely two ells within the selvedges. Weights are to be standardised similarly. In aboutFibonacci published his book Liber Abaci Book of Calculation which introduced the concept of positional notation into Europe.


These symbols evolved into the numerals "0", "1", "2" etc. Simon Stevin is credited with introducing the decimal system into general use in Europe. An artefact to represent the standard was cast in the most durable substance available in the Middle Ages, an iron bar[ citation needed ]. The problems of a non-reproducible artefact became apparent over the ages: When a new royal standard had to be cast, it was a different standard than the old one, so replicas of old ones and new ones came into existence and use.

The artefact existed through the 18th century, and was called a teise or later, a toise from Latin tense: This would lead to a search in the 18th century for a reproducible standard based on some invariant measure of the natural world.

Clocks and pendulums[ edit ] The invention of the pendulum clock with its characteristic second pendulum gave rise to proposals to use its length as a standard unit. But it became apparent that the pendulum lengths of calibrated clocks in different locations varied, and the problem was irresolute.

A more uniform standard was needed. The invention of the pendulum clock in by Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens realised for the first time the ancient sexagesimal second. It was soon evident that such clocks' periods varied with both latitude and altitude so that a clock's geometry, i. The milliare would be defined as a minute of arc along a meridian and would be divided into 10 centuria, the centuria into 10 decuria and so on, successive units being the virga, virgula, decima, centesima, and the millesima.

Mouton used Riccioli's estimate[ clarification needed ] that one degree of arc wasBolognese feet,[ clarification needed ] and his own experiments showed that a pendulum of length one virgula would beat But first, scientific information about the shape and size of the earth had to be obtained.

InJean Picarda French astronomer, was the first person to accurately measure the size of the earth.

The necessary revolution peter senge

In a survey spanning one degree of latitude, he erred by only 0. Please expand the section to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. January Late 18th-century: Spain, for example, had aligned her units of measure with the royal units of France, [15] and Peter the Great aligned the Russian units of measure with those of England.

The underlying issue was failure to agree on the latitude for the definition, since gravitational acceleration and therefore the length of the pendulum, is proportional to latitude: The direct consequence of the failure was the French unilateral development and deployment of the metric system and its spread by trade to the continent, the British adoption of the Imperial System of Measures throughout the realm inand the United States retention of the British common system of measures in place at the time of the independence of the colonies.

And that is the situation that pertained for nearly the next years. Units of measurement in France It has been estimated that on the eve of the Revolution inthe eight hundred, or so, units of measure in use in France had up to a quarter of a million different definitions because the quantity associated with each unit could differ from town to town, and even from trade to trade.

Verifying the weight in vacuo of a given volume of distilled water. Publishing conversion tables relating the new units of measure to the existing units of measure.

The panel decided that the new measure of length should be equal to one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator the quadrant of the Earth's circumferencemeasured along the meridian passing through Paris.

When the final result was known, the bar whose length was closest to the meridianal definition of the metre would be selected.

After the name of the original defined unit of mass, "gramme", which was too small to serve as a practical realisation, was adopted, the new prefix "kilo" was added to it to form the name "kilogramme".

Consequently, the kilogram is the only SI base unit that has an SI prefix as part of its unit name. A provisional kilogram standard was made and work was commissioned to determine the precise mass of a cubic decimetre later to be defined as equal to one litre of water.

The regulation of trade and commerce required a "practical realisation": On 7 Aprilthe gramme, upon which the kilogram is based, was decreed to be equal to "the absolute weight of a volume of pure water equal to a cube of one hundredth of a metre, and at the temperature of the melting ice".

Decimal multiples of these units were defined by Greek prefixes: The task eventually took more than six years — with delays caused not only by unforeseen technical difficulties but also by the convulsed period of the aftermath of the Revolution. The metre was defined along this meridian using a survey that stretched from Dunkirk to Barcelona.The Necessary Revolution: How Individuals and Organizations Are Working Together to Create a Sustainable World by Peter Senge, Bryan Smith, Nina Kruschwitz, Joe Laur, and Sara Schley, published by Doubleday in June After months of careful preparation, strategic planning began in December with the formation of a member planning team.

The team members, nominated by their peers, represented the wide range of functions, tenures, and demographics of the Zoo’s large and diverse staff. The history of the metric system began in the Age of Enlightenment with simple notions of length and weight taken from natural ones, and decimal multiples and fractions of them.

The system was so useful it became the standard of France and Europe in half a dimensions with unity ratios were added, and it went on to be adopted by the world..

The first practical realisation of the. The Triple Bottom Line: What Is It and How Does It Work? Timothy F. Slaper, Ph.D. Director of Economic Analysis, Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University Kelley School of Business Tanya J.

Hall. Economic Research Analyst, Indiana Business Research Center, Indiana University Kelley School of Business Sustainability has been an often mentioned goal of businesses, nonprofits and.

book, experts Peter Senge, Bryan Smith, Nina Kruschwitz, Joe Laur and Sara Schley discuss how people, organizations and nations are .

The necessary revolution peter senge

PETER SENGE, senior lecturer at MIT and the founding chair of the Society for Organizational Learning (SoL), is the author or co-author of several bestselling books, including The Fifth Discipline, Schools That Learn, and Presence/5(38).

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