The fundamental objective of target costing is to manage the business to be profitable in a highly competitive marketplace. In effect, target costing is a proactive cost planning, cost managementand cost reduction practice whereby costs are planned and managed out of a product and business early in the design and development cycle, rather than during the later stages of product development and production. Although the ideas of target costing were also applied by a number of other American companies including BoeingCaterpillarNorthern Telecomfew of them apply target costing as comprehensively and intensively as top Japanese companies such as NissanToyotaNippondenso. It did not receive global attention until late s to s when some authors such as Monden Sakurai Tanaka and Cooper  described the way that Japanese companies applied target costing to thrive in their business IMA
May 4,Washington State University Arzu Aysin Tekindor has never seen "Antiques Roadshow," the PBS television program that routinely subjects artworks and other collectibles to the burning question: What is it worth? When we look at paintings, many people cannot say the style maybe, but they can recognize the object.
She ranked the auction-house prices of more than 1, paintings chosen at random from the lifeworks of 15 great artistsincluding Pablo Picasso, Gustav Klimt, and Salvador Dali, the three most popular. She also gauged their popularity by counting Google hits on the artists, which corresponded closely with the millions of dollars that their works fetched.
Objects go for more in New York than London.
February and May are particularly good months to hold an art auction. Tekindor also found that if the artist gave the painting to its first owner or exchanged it with another artist, its value on average dropped by more than one-fourth.
And the more a piece became available at auction, the less likely the piece is to appreciate in value.
This, says Tekindor, could be a simple function of supply and demand. To be sure, paintings will differ in a lot more ways. Tekindor controlled for these statistically. Combining both style and object increased the value even more, by 85 percent.
The research has implications for both artists and consumers, says Tekindor.
Artistsshe says, will do well to keep in mind that their style and the objects they portray can have big impact on their career. And, she adds, "If you have a painting given to you as a gift, it is better not to tell people.abroad to study, factors influencing their decision to size of the sample becomes a limitation in the study in study abroad, what sources of information are available terms of generalization of the results to other regions.
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Study of Factors Influencing Productivity of Hauling Equipment in Earthmoving Projects using Fuzzy Set Theory. Background of the study There are many challenges which hinder the delivery of public service reforms in Africa (Lienert, ).
The factors include those relating to human resources like manpower deficiencies and lack of psychological dispositions and shortage of financial and material resources necessary for effective delivery of services. Fear of litigation and perceived safety concerns and are among the key factors influencing the decision to perform a cesarean section, according to a .
Economics study homes in on factors influencing value of great art native of Turkey and economics PhD candidate at Washington State University. according to a study published September Available online a t yunusemremert.com Pelagia Research Library Advances in Applied Science Research, , 3 (3) ISSN: