They are also called Chaga, Waschagga, Jagga, or Dschagga. Traditionally, the Chagga belonged to different clans groups of people of common descent ruled by mangis chiefs. The area was divided into independent chiefdoms. The chiefs sometimes warred with each other.
At the time van Gennep observed the processes associated with changes over the course of the life cycle, his studies were among people living vastly different lives than they do today and in cultures far removed from Western consciousness.
Subsequent writings over the last hundred years on initiation and rites of passage spanned the great realm within the human experience. Victor Turner focused on the structure of ritual and gave us some brilliant lines like: Through the symbolic death and rebirth experienced in the ordeal one is placed into a primal position to re-experience the sacredness of life.
It reconnected the child to their soul and authentic self within the realm of the Spirits and Gods established at the beginning of time. Jungian psychology explored the archetypal symbols within humans that contribute to an essential foundation of human behavior and existence.
Carl Jungthe Swiss psychoanalyst believed that death and resurrection are archetypal universal processes that are part of our collective unconscious. That is, a part of our mind that contains universal symbols that shape our personal experiences.
The psychological process of death and resurrection were central tasks of psychological transformation and growth and a central function of initiation. While the transformative potential of these initiation processes is clear what is questionable is if and how they can be of service in contemporary Western society, which is markedly different from the time, place and cultures that van Gennep observed.
One position is that they cannot. Contemporary programs designed to replicate and become rites of passage miss the mark. Unlike authentic, community-based, culturally relevant initiation and rites of passage processes many contemporary forms do not offer the initiate knowledge of or entry into their own culture and community.
Youth are often sent outside the community for a rite of passage program experience, but the family and community are unable or often unwilling to accept the changes within the youth.
The family and community may not be engaged with or even understand the external rite of passage program in such a way that they can adequately welcome the child home, celebrate their change of status and, most importantly, accord to them the respect that goes along with the responsibilities of their new status.
Furthermore, the community has made no place for them to demonstrate their new skill and status in ways that serve the community and affirm for the child their ascension into their new roles that will be acknowledged by their community. Unless you are welcomed back to the village and honored for completing an ordeal you become sick.
The transformation was complete when we returned and were honored and welcomed back into the community. We have must come a long way to experience the journey back to ourselves.
However, all is not lost and the story of initiation and rites of passage can still be of great, even life sustaining and saving value, if we consider their other primary purpose.
Although not a central focus of many observers and analysis, another view is that an essential purpose of rites of passage was also as a community organizing process for strengthening the resilience and adaptation of the group in order to survive.
The separation and transition efforts of individuals fail if there is no community to incorporate back into with personal changes and growth celebrated.
The entire process is reciprocity between the individual and community, which serves to insure the survival of our species in balance and connection with nature and our sacred Earth.Chagga - Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major holidays, Rites of passage Tajikistan to Zimbabwe.
Ancient Greek Philosophy. From Thales, who is often considered the first Western philosopher, to the Stoics and Skeptics, ancient Greek philosophy opened the doors to a particular way of thinking that provided the roots for the Western intellectual tradition.
INTRODUCTION. In Jan.
'96, I bound the first copies of The Illuminati Formula Used to Create Undetectable Total Mind-Controlled Slave. Hundreds of people in the United States and other countries were reading this book, and were expressing their appreciation and praise for the work. functionalist - argued that youth as a social category only emerged due to changes in the family associated with the development of capitalism.
in pre capitalist societies the transition from adulthood to childhood was marked with an initiation/ rite of passage e.g.. hamar tribe. A rite of passage is a ritual or a set of rituals that allows an individual to move from one social status to another. Rites of passage are important to the individual and to the society in a number of ways.
Rites of passage typically move a person between distinct but important stages of life. Culture. Introduction. Because of the great diversity of people and culture, Nigeria has distinguished herself over the centuries in the field of arts.